Khuzayma > Umar ibn Khattab – Join islam

Historically, Umar ibn al-Khattab was one of the prophet’s closest companions and father-in-law. Umar participated in almost all battles and expeditions under Muhammad, who bestowed upon him the title al-Fārūq ( الفاروق ), which translates to “the one who distinguishes between right and wrong.” This title underscores how the prophet viewed Umar’s reputation for justice and his ability to discern truth from falsehood. After Muhammad’s death in June 632, Umar pledged allegiance to Abu Bakr (r. 632–634) as the first caliph. He served as the closest adviser to the latter until August 634, when Umar succeeded him as the second caliph.

According to Hadith, Umar was adamant that the Quran he knew contained a verse regarding the stoning of adulters. He is attributed with pushing for this in numerous hadith narrations, including his infamous speech to the Ansar during the bay’ah (pledge) for Abu Bakr. He is even attributed with supposedly stating that if there wouldn’t be an uproar, he would have included this verse in the Quran himself.

‘Abdullah b. ‘Abbas reported that ‘Umar b. Khattab sat on the pulpit of Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) and said: Verily Allah sent Muhammad (ﷺ) with truth and He sent down the Book upon him, and the verse of stoning was included in what was sent down to him. We recited it, retained it in our memory and understood it. Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) awarded the punishment of stoning to death (to the married adulterer and adulteress) and, after him, we also awarded the punishment of stoning, I am afraid that with the lapse of time, the people (may forget it) and may say: We do not find the punishment of stoning in the Book of Allah, and thus go astray by abandoning this duty prescribed by Allah. Stoning is a duty laid down in Allah’s Book for married men and women who commit adultery when proof is established, or it there is pregnancy, or a confession.

حَدَّثَنِي أَبُو الطَّاهِرِ، وَحَرْمَلَةُ بْنُ يَحْيَى، قَالاَ حَدَّثَنَا ابْنُ وَهْبٍ، أَخْبَرَنِي يُونُسُ، عَنِ ابْنِ شِهَابٍ، قَالَ أَخْبَرَنِي عُبَيْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ عُتْبَةَ، أَنَّهُ سَمِعَ عَبْدَ اللَّهِ بْنَ عَبَّاسٍ، يَقُولُ قَالَ عُمَرُ بْنُ الْخَطَّابِ وَهُوَ جَالِسٌ عَلَى مِنْبَرِ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم إِنَّ اللَّهَ قَدْ بَعَثَ مُحَمَّدًا صلى الله عليه وسلم بِالْحَقِّ وَأَنْزَلَ عَلَيْهِ الْكِتَابَ فَكَانَ مِمَّا أُنْزِلَ عَلَيْهِ آيَةُ الرَّجْمِ قَرَأْنَاهَا وَوَعَيْنَاهَا وَعَقَلْنَاهَا فَرَجَمَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم وَرَجَمْنَا بَعْدَهُ فَأَخْشَى إِنْ طَالَ بِالنَّاسِ زَمَانٌ أَنْ يَقُولَ قَائِلٌ مَا نَجِدُ الرَّجْمَ فِي كِتَابِ اللَّهِ فَيَضِلُّوا بِتَرْكِ فَرِيضَةٍ أَنْزَلَهَا اللَّهُ وَإِنَّ الرَّجْمَ فِي كِتَابِ اللَّهِ حَقٌّ عَلَى مَنْ زَنَى إِذَا أَحْصَنَ مِنَ الرِّجَالِ وَالنِّسَاءِ إِذَا قَامَتِ الْبَيِّنَةُ أَوْ كَانَ الْحَبَلُ أَوْ الاِعْتِرَافُ ‏.‏

Sahih Muslim 1691a

‘Umar bin Al-Khattab said: “The Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) stoned, Abu Bakr stoned, and I stoned. If I didn’t dislike that I add to the Book of Allah. I would have written it in the Mushaf, for I fear that there will come a people and they will not find it in the Book of Allah, so they will disbelieve in it.”

حَدَّثَنَا أَحْمَدُ بْنُ مَنِيعٍ، حَدَّثَنَا إِسْحَاقُ بْنُ يُوسُفَ الأَزْرَقُ، عَنْ دَاوُدَ بْنِ أَبِي هِنْدٍ، عَنْ سَعِيدِ بْنِ الْمُسَيَّبِ، عَنْ عُمَرَ بْنِ الْخَطَّابِ، قَالَ رَجَمَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم وَرَجَمَ أَبُو بَكْرٍ وَرَجَمْتُ وَلَوْلاَ أَنِّي أَكْرَهُ أَنْ أَزِيدَ فِي كِتَابِ اللَّهِ لَكَتَبْتُهُ فِي الْمُصْحَفِ فَإِنِّي قَدْ خَشِيتُ أَنْ تَجِيءَ أَقْوَامٌ فَلاَ يَجِدُونَهُ فِي كِتَابِ اللَّهِ فَيَكْفُرُونَ بِهِ ‏.‏ قَالَ وَفِي الْبَابِ عَنْ عَلِيٍّ ‏.‏ قَالَ أَبُو عِيسَى حَدِيثُ عُمَرَ حَدِيثٌ حَسَنٌ صَحِيحٌ وَرُوِيَ مِنْ غَيْرِ وَجْهٍ عَنْ عُمَرَ ‏.‏

Jami` at-Tirmidhi 1431

Yet, despite Umar ibn Khattab’s closeness to the prophet and his credibility among the Muslims, they did not grant him his wish, and the stoning verse was never included in the Quran.

Now contrast Umar with Abi Khuzaima Al-Ansari, a person who is virtually unknown among the companions except that he was the only person who supposedly knew what became identified as verses of Sura 9:128 and 129 of the Quran during its compilation under the reign of Abu Bakr.

Narrated Zaid bin Thabit: Abu Bakr As-Siddiq sent for me when the people of Yamama had been killed (i.e., a number of the Prophet’s Companions who fought against Musailima). (I went to him) and found Umar bin Al-Khattab sitting with him. Abu Bakr then said (to me), “Umar has come to me and said: “Casualties were heavy among the Qurra’ of the Qur’an (i.e. those who knew the Qur’an by heart) on the day of the Battle of Yamama, and I am afraid that more heavy casualties may take place among the Qurra’ on other battlefields, whereby a large part of the Qur’an may be lost. Therefore I suggest, you (Abu Bakr) order that the Qur’an be collected.” I said to Umar, “How can you do something which Allah’s Apostle did not do?”Umar said, “By Allah, that is a good project.” Umar kept on urging me to accept his proposal till Allah opened my chest for it and I began to realize the good in the idea which Umar had realized.” Then Abu Bakr said (to me). ‘You are a wise young man and we do not have any suspicion about you, and you used to write the Divine Inspiration for Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ). So you should search for (the fragmentary scripts of) the Qur’an and collect it in one book.” By Allah If they had ordered me to shift one of the mountains, it would not have been heavier for me than this ordering me to collect the Qur’an. Then I said to Abu Bakr, “How will you do something which Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) did not do?” Abu Bakr replied, “By Allah, it is a good project.” Abu Bakr kept on urging me to accept his idea until Allah opened my chest for what He had opened the chests of Abu Bakr and Umar. So I started looking for the Qur’an and collecting it from (what was written on) palm stalks, thin white stones, and also from the men who knew it by heart, till I found the last Verse of Surat at-Tauba (Repentance) with Abi Khuzaima Al-Ansari, and I did not find it with anybody other than him. The Verse is: ‘Verily there has come unto you an Apostle (Muhammad) from amongst yourselves. It grieves him that you should receive any injury or difficulty..(till the end of Surat-Baraa’ (at-Tauba) (9.128-129). Then the complete manuscripts (copy) of the Qur’an remained with Abu Bakr till he died, then with Umar till the end of his life, and then with Hafsa, the daughter of `Umar.

حَدَّثَنَا مُوسَى بْنُ إِسْمَاعِيلَ، عَنْ إِبْرَاهِيمَ بْنِ سَعْدٍ، حَدَّثَنَا ابْنُ شِهَابٍ، عَنْ عُبَيْدِ بْنِ السَّبَّاقِ، أَنَّ زَيْدَ بْنَ ثَابِتٍ ـ رضى الله عنه ـ قَالَ أَرْسَلَ إِلَىَّ أَبُو بَكْرٍ مَقْتَلَ أَهْلِ الْيَمَامَةِ فَإِذَا عُمَرُ بْنُ الْخَطَّابِ عِنْدَهُ قَالَ أَبُو بَكْرٍ ـ رضى الله عنه ـ إِنَّ عُمَرَ أَتَانِي فَقَالَ إِنَّ الْقَتْلَ قَدِ اسْتَحَرَّ يَوْمَ الْيَمَامَةِ بِقُرَّاءِ الْقُرْآنِ وَإِنِّي أَخْشَى أَنْ يَسْتَحِرَّ الْقَتْلُ بِالْقُرَّاءِ بِالْمَوَاطِنِ، فَيَذْهَبَ كَثِيرٌ مِنَ الْقُرْآنِ وَإِنِّي أَرَى أَنْ تَأْمُرَ بِجَمْعِ الْقُرْآنِ‏.‏ قُلْتُ لِعُمَرَ كَيْفَ تَفْعَلُ شَيْئًا لَمْ يَفْعَلْهُ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَالَ عُمَرُ هَذَا وَاللَّهِ خَيْرٌ‏.‏ فَلَمْ يَزَلْ عُمَرُ يُرَاجِعُنِي حَتَّى شَرَحَ اللَّهُ صَدْرِي لِذَلِكَ، وَرَأَيْتُ فِي ذَلِكَ الَّذِي رَأَى عُمَرُ‏.‏ قَالَ زَيْدٌ قَالَ أَبُو بَكْرٍ إِنَّكَ رَجُلٌ شَابٌّ عَاقِلٌ لاَ نَتَّهِمُكَ، وَقَدْ كُنْتَ تَكْتُبُ الْوَحْىَ لِرَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم فَتَتَبَّعِ الْقُرْآنَ فَاجْمَعْهُ فَوَاللَّهِ لَوْ كَلَّفُونِي نَقْلَ جَبَلٍ مِنَ الْجِبَالِ مَا كَانَ أَثْقَلَ عَلَىَّ مِمَّا أَمَرَنِي مِنْ جَمْعِ الْقُرْآنِ قُلْتُ كَيْفَ تَفْعَلُونَ شَيْئًا لَمْ يَفْعَلْهُ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَالَ هُوَ وَاللَّهِ خَيْرٌ فَلَمْ يَزَلْ أَبُو بَكْرٍ يُرَاجِعُنِي حَتَّى شَرَحَ اللَّهُ صَدْرِي لِلَّذِي شَرَحَ لَهُ صَدْرَ أَبِي بَكْرٍ وَعُمَرَ ـ رضى الله عنهما ـ فَتَتَبَّعْتُ الْقُرْآنَ أَجْمَعُهُ مِنَ الْعُسُبِ وَاللِّخَافِ وَصُدُورِ الرِّجَالِ حَتَّى وَجَدْتُ آخِرَ سُورَةِ التَّوْبَةِ مَعَ أَبِي خُزَيْمَةَ الأَنْصَارِيِّ لَمْ أَجِدْهَا مَعَ أَحَدٍ غَيْرَهُ ‏{‏لَقَدْ جَاءَكُمْ رَسُولٌ مِنْ أَنْفُسِكُمْ عَزِيزٌ عَلَيْهِ مَا عَنِتُّمْ‏}‏ حَتَّى خَاتِمَةِ بَرَاءَةَ، فَكَانَتِ الصُّحُفُ عِنْدَ أَبِي بَكْرٍ حَتَّى تَوَفَّاهُ اللَّهُ ثُمَّ عِنْدَ عُمَرَ حَيَاتَهُ ثُمَّ عِنْدَ حَفْصَةَ بِنْتِ عُمَرَ ـ رضى الله عنه ـ‏.‏

Sahih al-Bukhari 4986

It is strange that two verses were added to the Quran by a relatively unknown companion with no other witnesses when, according to Hadith, at least two witnesses were required before any verse could be added to the Quran.

Narrated Abdullah, he said: Abu Tahir narrated to us, saying: Ibn Wahb informed us and Ibn Abi al-Zinad informed me, from Hisham ibn Urwah, from his father, he said: When the killing of the reciters of the Qur’an became widespread on that day, Abu Bakr feared that the Qur’an might be lost. So he said to Umar ibn al-Khattab and Zaid ibn Thabit, “Sit at the door of the mosque, and if anyone comes to you with two witnesses about anything from the Book of Allah, write it down.”

حدثنا عبد الله قال: حدثنا أبو الطاهر قال: أخبرنا ابن وهب وأخبرني ابن أبي الزناد، عن هشام بن عروة، عن أبيه قال: لما استحر القتل بالقراء يومئذ فرق أبو بكر على القرآن أن يضيع فقال لعمر بن الخطاب وزيد بن ثابت اقعدوا على باب المسجد فمن جاءكما بشاهدين على شيء من كتاب الله فاكتباه.

Kitab Al Masahif Ibn Abu Dawud p. 12

Funny enough, the only other fact we are told about Khuzaima is that his testimony was conveniently equal to that of two men. According to Abu Dawud, he was granted this honor because he bore false witness for the prophet, and for this action, the prophet made his testimony equal to that of two men.

Narrated Uncle of Umarah ibn Khuzaymah: The Prophet (ﷺ) bought a horse from a Bedouin. The Prophet (ﷺ) took him with him to pay him the price of his horse. The Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) walked quickly and the Bedouin walked slowly. The people stopped the Bedouin and began to bargain with him for the horse as and they did not know that the Prophet (ﷺ) had bought it. The Bedouin called the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) saying: If you want this horse, (then buy it), otherwise I shall sell it. The Prophet (ﷺ) stopped when he heard the call of the Bedouin, and said: Have I not bought it from you? The Bedouin said: I swear by Allah, I have not sold it to you. The Prophet (ﷺ) said: Yes, I have bought it from you. The Bedouin began to say: Bring a witness. Khuzaymah ibn Thabit then said: I bear witness that you have bought it. The Prophet (ﷺ) turned to Khuzaymah and said: On what (grounds) do you bear witness? He said: By considering you trustworthy, Messenger of Allah (ﷺ)! The Prophet (ﷺ) made the witness of Khuzaymah equivalent to the witness of two people.

حَدَّثَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى بْنِ فَارِسٍ، أَنَّ الْحَكَمَ بْنَ نَافِعٍ، حَدَّثَهُمْ أَخْبَرَنَا شُعَيْبٌ، عَنِ الزُّهْرِيِّ، عَنْ عُمَارَةَ بْنِ خُزَيْمَةَ، أَنَّ عَمَّهُ، حَدَّثَهُ وَهُوَ، مِنْ أَصْحَابِ النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم أَنَّ النَّبِيَّ صلى الله عليه وسلم ابْتَاعَ فَرَسًا مِنْ أَعْرَابِيٍّ فَاسْتَتْبَعَهُ النَّبِيُّ صلى الله عليه وسلم لِيَقْضِيَهُ ثَمَنَ فَرَسِهِ فَأَسْرَعَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم الْمَشْىَ وَأَبْطَأَ الأَعْرَابِيُّ فَطَفِقَ رِجَالٌ يَعْتَرِضُونَ الأَعْرَابِيَّ فَيُسَاوِمُونَهُ بِالْفَرَسِ وَلاَ يَشْعُرُونَ أَنَّ النَّبِيَّ صلى الله عليه وسلم ابْتَاعَهُ فَنَادَى الأَعْرَابِيُّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم فَقَالَ إِنْ كُنْتَ مُبْتَاعًا هَذَا الْفَرَسَ وَإِلاَّ بِعْتُهُ ‏.‏ فَقَامَ النَّبِيُّ صلى الله عليه وسلم حِينَ سَمِعَ نِدَاءَ الأَعْرَابِيِّ فَقَالَ ‏”‏ أَوَلَيْسَ قَدِ ابْتَعْتُهُ مِنْكَ ‏”‏ ‏.‏ فَقَالَ الأَعْرَابِيُّ لاَ وَاللَّهِ مَا بِعْتُكَهُ ‏.‏ فَقَالَ النَّبِيُّ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏”‏ بَلَى قَدِ ابْتَعْتُهُ مِنْكَ ‏”‏ ‏.‏ فَطَفِقَ الأَعْرَابِيُّ يَقُولُ هَلُمَّ شَهِيدًا ‏.‏ فَقَالَ خُزَيْمَةُ بْنُ ثَابِتٍ أَنَا أَشْهَدُ أَنَّكَ قَدْ بَايَعْتَهُ ‏.‏ فَأَقْبَلَ النَّبِيُّ صلى الله عليه وسلم عَلَى خُزَيْمَةَ فَقَالَ ‏”‏ بِمَ تَشْهَدُ ‏”‏ ‏.‏ فَقَالَ بِتَصْدِيقِكَ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ ‏.‏ فَجَعَلَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم شَهَادَةَ خُزَيْمَةَ بِشَهَادَةِ رَجُلَيْنِ ‏.‏

Sunan Abi Dawud 3607

So, from this, Sunnis must conclude that Khuzaymah was more credible, reputable, and trustworthy than Umar ibn Khattab, according to their Hadith sources.

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