quran

Dietary Prohibitions Quran vs. Hadith – Join islam

According to the Quran, there are only four dietary prohibitions. This is spelled out four times in the Quran, 2:173, 6:145, 5:3, and 16:115, with the most all-encompassing verse being 6:145.

[6:145] Say, “I do not find in the revelations given to me any food that is prohibited for any eater except: (1) carrion, (2) running blood, (3) the meat of pigs, for it is contaminated, and (4) the meat of animals blasphemously dedicated to other than GOD.” If one is forced (to eat these), without being deliberate or malicious, then your Lord is Forgiver, Most Merciful.

 قُل لَّآ أَجِدُ فِى مَآ أُوحِىَ إِلَىَّ مُحَرَّمًا عَلَىٰ طَاعِمٍ يَطْعَمُهُۥٓ إِلَّآ أَن يَكُونَ مَيْتَةً أَوْ دَمًا مَّسْفُوحًا أَوْ لَحْمَ خِنزِيرٍ فَإِنَّهُۥ رِجْسٌ أَوْ فِسْقًا أُهِلَّ لِغَيْرِ ٱللَّهِ بِهِۦ فَمَنِ ٱضْطُرَّ غَيْرَ بَاغٍ وَلَا عَادٍ فَإِنَّ رَبَّكَ غَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ

This verse uses the strongest injunction against any other dietary prohibitions beyond what is immediately specified in the verse by utilizing a similar structure like what is used in the Shahdah.

The Shahadah, “لا إله إلا الله” (la ilaha illa Allah), translates to “There is no god except God” in English. Grammatically, this statement is structured around a form of negation followed by an exception. The structure “لا … إلا …” (la … illa …) in Arabic is specifically used to negate everything except what follows after “إلا” (illa), making it a statement of exclusivity or exception. The use of negation followed by an exception is a common and important structure in Arabic, allowing the speaker to exclude something from the general negation. In the context of the Shahadah, it is used to affirm the monotheistic belief in Islam by negating the existence or worship of any deity other than Allah.

Similarly, the structure of the dietary prohibitions, 6:145 is structured in the same format as the Shahadah to eliminate the possibility of any other dietary prohibition without exception. By stating that these are the only dietary prohibitions from all the divine inspiration (wahi) given to the prophet it eliminates the possibility of additional dietary prohibitions.

1 qul قُل Say,
2 لَّآ “not
3 ajidu أَجِدُ I find
4 فِى in
5 مَآ what
6 ūḥiya أُوحِىَ it was inspired / revealed
7 ilayya إِلَىَّ to me
8 muḥarraman مُحَرَّمًا a prohibition
9 ʿalā عَلَىٰ for
10 ṭāʿimin طَاعِمٍ a taster / an eater (of food)
11 yaṭʿamuhu يَطْعَمُهُۥٓ (who) he eats it / tastes it
12 illā إِلَّآ except

The Prophet Could Not Prohibit Anything

A legislator creates laws, and a judge applies them. God is the only legislator in the religion. The prophet had no authority to legislate laws or to create additional dietary prohibitions. This is specified in the following verse.

[66:1] O you prophet, why do you prohibit what GOD has made lawful for you, just to please your wives? GOD is Forgiver, Merciful.

 يَـٰٓأَيُّهَا ٱلنَّبِىُّ لِمَ تُحَرِّمُ مَآ أَحَلَّ ٱللَّهُ لَكَ تَبْتَغِى مَرْضَاتَ أَزْوَٰجِكَ وَٱللَّهُ غَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ

If the prophet had been allowed to create prohibitions, then God would not have reprimanded him for his action above; instead, he would have been in his right if he had been authorized to be a legislator.

Hadith & Dietary Prohibitions

Yet, the Hadith cites the prophet as having created all kinds of dietary prohibitions beyond the Quran.

Donkey Meat

Narrated Ibn Abi Aufa: We were afflicted with hunger during the besiege of Khaibar, and when it was the day of (the battle of) Khaibar, we slaughtered the donkeys and when the pots got boiling (with their meat). Allah’s Apostle made an announcement that all the pots should be upset and that nobody should eat anything of the meat of the donkeys. We thought that the Prophet (ﷺ) prohibited that because the Khumus had not been taken out of the booty (i.e. donkeys); other people said, “He prohibited eating them forever.” The sub-narrator added, “I asked Said bin Jubair who said, ‘He has made the eating of donkeys’ meat illegal forever.”)

حَدَّثَنَا مُوسَى بْنُ إِسْمَاعِيلَ، حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ الْوَاحِدِ، حَدَّثَنَا الشَّيْبَانِيُّ، قَالَ سَمِعْتُ ابْنَ أَبِي أَوْفَى ـ رضى الله عنهما ـ يَقُولُ أَصَابَتْنَا مَجَاعَةٌ لَيَالِيَ خَيْبَرَ، فَلَمَّا كَانَ يَوْمُ خَيْبَرَ وَقَعْنَا فِي الْحُمُرِ الأَهْلِيَّةِ، فَانْتَحَرْنَاهَا فَلَمَّا غَلَتِ الْقُدُورُ، نَادَى مُنَادِي رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم اكْفَئُوا الْقُدُورَ، فَلاَ تَطْعَمُوا مِنْ لُحُومِ الْحُمُرِ شَيْئًا‏.‏ قَالَ عَبْدُ اللَّهِ فَقُلْنَا إِنَّمَا نَهَى النَّبِيُّ صلى الله عليه وسلم لأَنَّهَا لَمْ تُخَمَّسْ‏.‏ قَالَ وَقَالَ آخَرُونَ حَرَّمَهَا الْبَتَّةَ‏.‏ وَسَأَلْتُ سَعِيدَ بْنَ جُبَيْرٍ فَقَالَ حَرَّمَهَا الْبَتَّةَ‏.‏

Sahih al-Bukhari 3155

Another narration, Sahih al-Bukhari 5528, states that the reason that donkey meat is forbidden is because it is Rijs (impure). This is the same word used to describe the meat of pigs in 6:145.

Narrated Anas bin Malik: Someone came to Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) and said, “The donkeys have been (slaughtered and) eaten. Another man came and said, “The donkeys have been destroyed.” On that the Prophet (ﷺ) ordered a caller to announce to the people: Allah and His Apostle forbid you to eat the meat of donkeys, for it is impure.’ Thus the pots were turned upside down while the (donkeys’) meat was boiling in them.

حَدَّثَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ سَلاَمٍ، أَخْبَرَنَا عَبْدُ الْوَهَّابِ الثَّقَفِيُّ، عَنْ أَيُّوبَ، عَنْ مُحَمَّدٍ، عَنْ أَنَسِ بْنِ مَالِكٍ ـ رضى الله عنه ـ أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم جَاءَهُ جَاءٍ فَقَالَ أُكِلَتِ الْحُمُرُ، ثُمَّ جَاءَهُ جَاءٍ فَقَالَ أُكِلَتِ الْحُمُرُ‏.‏ ثُمَّ جَاءَهُ جَاءٍ فَقَالَ أُفْنِيَتِ الْحُمُرُ‏.‏ فَأَمَرَ مُنَادِيًا فَنَادَى فِي النَّاسِ إِنَّ اللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ يَنْهَيَانِكُمْ عَنْ لُحُومِ الْحُمُرِ الأَهْلِيَّةِ، فَإِنَّهَا رِجْسٌ.‏ فَأُكْفِئَتِ الْقُدُورُ وَإِنَّهَا لَتَفُورُ بِاللَّحْمِ‏.‏

Sahih al-Bukhari 5528

For a more detailed analysis of the Hadith prohibition of donkey meat, check out the following article.

Beast with Fangs

Abu Huraira reported Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) as saying: The eating of all fanged beasts of prey is unlawful.

وَحَدَّثَنِي زُهَيْرُ بْنُ حَرْبٍ، حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ الرَّحْمَنِ، – يَعْنِي ابْنَ مَهْدِيٍّ – عَنْ مَالِكٍ، عَنْ إِسْمَاعِيلَ بْنِ أَبِي حَكِيمٍ، عَنْ عَبِيدَةَ بْنِ سُفْيَانَ، عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ، عَنِ النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَالَ ‏ “كُلُّ ذِي نَابٍ مِنَ السِّبَاعِ فَأَكْلُهُ حَرَامٌ ‏”‏ ‏.‏

Sahih Muslim 1933a

Birds wtih Talons

Ibn ‘Abbas reported that Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) prohibited the eating of all fanged beasts of prey, and all the birds having talons.

وَحَدَّثَنَا عُبَيْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ مُعَاذٍ الْعَنْبَرِيُّ، حَدَّثَنَا أَبِي، حَدَّثَنَا شُعْبَةُ، عَنِ الْحَكَمِ، عَنْ مَيْمُونِ، بْنِ مِهْرَانَ عَنِ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ، قَالَ نَهَى رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم عَنْ كُلِّ ذِي نَابٍ مِنَ السِّبَاعِ وَعَنْ كُلِّ ذِي مِخْلَبٍ مِنَ الطَّيْرِ ‏.‏

Sahih Muslim 1934a

Garlic & Onions

Narrated Ibn `Umar: On the day of Khaiber, Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) forbade the eating of garlic and the meat of donkeys.

حَدَّثَنِي عُبَيْدُ بْنُ إِسْمَاعِيلَ، عَنْ أَبِي أُسَامَةَ، عَنْ عُبَيْدِ اللَّهِ، عَنْ نَافِعٍ، وَسَالِمٍ، عَنِ ابْنِ عُمَرَ ـ رضى الله عنهما ـ أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم نَهَى يَوْمَ خَيْبَرَ عَنْ أَكْلِ الثَّوْمِ، وَعَنْ لُحُومِ الْحُمُرِ الأَهْلِيَّةِ‏.‏ نَهَى عَنْ أَكْلِ الثَّوْمِ هُوَ عَنْ نَافِعٍ وَحْدَهُ‏.‏ وَلُحُومُ الْحُمُرِ الأَهْلِيَّةِ عَنْ سَالِمٍ‏.‏

Sahih al-Bukhari 4215

Narrated Jabir bin `Abdullah: The Prophet (ﷺ) said, “Whoever has eaten garlic or onion should keep away from us (or should keep away from our mosque).’

حَدَّثَنَا عَلِيُّ بْنُ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ، حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو صَفْوَانَ عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ سَعِيدٍ، أَخْبَرَنَا يُونُسُ، عَنِ ابْنِ شِهَابٍ، قَالَ حَدَّثَنِي عَطَاءٌ، أَنَّ جَابِرَ بْنَ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ـ رضى الله عنهما ـ زَعَمَ عَنِ النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَالَ ‏ “‏ مَنْ أَكَلَ ثُومًا أَوْ بَصَلاً فَلْيَعْتَزِلْنَا، أَوْ لِيَعْتَزِلْ مَسْجِدَنَا ‏”‏‏.‏

Sahih al-Bukhari 5452

Prophet Would Never

To think that the prophet prohibited dietary prohibitions beyond what was commanded to him by God in the Quran is to think that he would defy God’s commandments. The Quran informs us that such a thing would have never been tolerated.

[69:44] Had he uttered any other teachings.
[69:45] We would have punished him.
[69:46] We would have stopped the revelations to him.
[69:47] None of you could have helped him.

(٤٤) وَلَوْ تَقَوَّلَ عَلَيْنَا بَعْضَ ٱلْأَقَاوِيلِ
(٤٥) لَأَخَذْنَا مِنْهُ بِٱلْيَمِينِ
(٤٦) ثُمَّ لَقَطَعْنَا مِنْهُ ٱلْوَتِينَ
(٤٧) فَمَا مِنكُم مِّنْ أَحَدٍ عَنْهُ حَـٰجِزِينَ

Source

Related Articles

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *


Back to top button